Steps in Conducting an Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA)

Project analysis
It involves the description of the Project specification. The anticipated hazards from the project e.g. Expected emissions, Noise, odors, effluent discharge etc.

Regional analysis
This is the analysis of the physical and geographical features of the area where the project is to be implemented. For instance, the current land use patterns, natural features etc. Low-income groups and minorities may have a greater likelihood of exposure to environmental hazards because they are more likely to live in areas with more pollution and toxic waste.

Population analysis
The demography of the area is analyzed to determine the population Size, composition, Health status, education levels, occupation etc. Different population groups can have different rates of disease (for example, people who live in cities tend to have higher rates of asthma.

Background situation
The situation that existed before the project is described here. It includes the kind of pollution that was in existence, for instance the air quality before, noise levels before etc. and their sources.
Prognosis of future pollution levels
In this section prediction of the future pollution levels as a result of the project activities is made. For instance, increased emission resulting into air pollution, effluent discharge resulting into water pollution, etc.

Prognosis of health impact
In this section Prediction of the likely health impact from a project is done. It involves comparing the identified impacts with the set limit values. For instance, the noise levels likely to occur versus the limit levels set by EMCA Noise and Excessive Vibration Pollution) (Control) Regulations, 2009. Including the relevant facts and make the discussion to be rational and impartial.

Summary assessment of the predicted health impacts
Brief statements are used to presents the main points on the predicted health impact in a concise form. In this section it is important to use the correct and accurate information as obtained in the health impact forecast.

Recommendations.
They should be derived from the EIHA findings and should have suggestions for future action. The recommendation may be on planning alternatives, emission control, monitoring, post project analysis etc.

Communication.
This entails conveying information about the EHIA all parties affected and concerned e.g. the community, planners, decision makers etc. The information is in regard to the predicted health impacts, underlying assumptions, recommendations etc.

Evaluation.
When the project is implemented there should be evaluation of the EHIA methods and assumptions. This can be done by comparing the predicted impacts to the actual situation.

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